16 LAB REPORT ON INVESTIGATION ON ENZYME AND KINETICS V vs Temperature 0.14 Enzyme Activity, V (mol/min) 0.12 0.1 0.08 y = 0.0001x + 0.0767 0.06 R² = 0.0057 0.04 0.02 0 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 Temperature, T (⁰C) Figure 10 - Graph of Enzyme Activity Against Temperature The graph shows the enzyme activity plotted against the temperature Bio 126 - Week 3 - Enzyme Kinetics The slope of the line is Km / Vmax, the y-intercept is 1/ Vmax and, if we extrapolate the line (i.e., set y = 1/v0 = 0), the x-intercept is -1/ Km.The use of the double reciprocal plot yields much more accurate values for Km and Vmax than an interpretation of the Michaelis-Menten curve. I
Download & View Ap Biology Enzyme Kinetics Lab Report as PDF for free. More details. Words: 4,485; Pages: 22; Preview; Full text; INTRODUCTION Living organisms need enzymes for everyday use. (Hershey 2009). They use enzymes for eating, breaking down substances, or even with products we use daily, like carpet and kitchen cleaners. Enzymes are. Thursday, Oct. 2: Hand in Lab Report #1: Trypsin Lab Report: You should understand the basic concepts of enzyme mechanisms, especially that of the serine proteases. You are also responsible for the theory of enzyme kinetics (e.g. Michaelis-Menten kinetics and inhibitors). These concepts are part of the general knowledge o
Enzyme Kinetics: Theory and Practice Alistair Rogers and Yves Gibon 4.1 Introduction Enzymes, like all positive catalysts, dramatically increase the rate of a given reaction. Enzyme kinetics is principally concerned with the measurement and math-ematical description of this reaction rate and its associated constants. For man View Lab Report - Lab Report C.1.pdf from NTR 415 at North Carolina State University. Enzyme Kinetics Characterization: Alcohol Dehydrogenase By Raymond Samuel September 26, 2017 Partner Zac
Enzyme kinetics are described by the Michaelis-Menten mechanism, which yields the expression Eqn 3 where v is the initial rate (or velocity), V MAX You will each write up your own lab report. You will be measuring the absorbance of each of four solutions at 420 nm every 15 seconds for the first minute and then every 30 seconds for 5 minutes. Enzyme Kinetics In this exercise we will look at the catalytic behavior of enzymes. You will use Excel to answer the questions in the exercise section. At the end of this session, you must hand in answers to all the questions, along with print outs of any plots you created Enzyme Kinetics, Athel Cornish-Bowden and C. W. Wharton, IRL Press, 1988. computational systems biology 5 A simple view: E+A = EA as an equilibrium • The mechanism: the first step of the reaction is the binding of the substrate (A) to the enzyme (E) to form and enzyme-substrate complex (EA) whic
ENZYME KINETICS: • The rate of the reaction catalyzed by enzyme E A + B ↔ P is defined as -Δ[A] or -Δ[B] or Δ[P] Δt Δt Δt • A and B changes are negative because the substrates are disappearing • P change is positive because product is being formed. • Enzyme activity can be assayed in many way View Experiment_3 lab report.pdf from BIOL 1P91 at Brock University. BIOL 1P91 Experiment #3: Enzyme Kinetics: ß - Xylose Dehydrogenase Activity Tavleen Kaur Marwah Lab Section 02 Submitted on 2 Saturation of the enzyme means that all of the E is bound to S and no free E exists. The enzyme has bound to as much substrate as possible. This situation occurs at high levels of S. 5. What is meant by saturation kinetics? Saturation kinetics refers to the situation of an enzyme reaction reaching a maximal velocity at high levels of S
study of the kinetics of enzyme-catalyzed reactions. They found that the dependence of the rate of enzymatic reactions on the substrate concentration was generally hyperbolic: They were able to rationalize this finding by making several assumptions: 1. Enzyme and substrate must physically combine for catalysis to occur. 2 Enzyme kinetics, which refers to the rate of an enzyme rcatalyzed reaction, can be affected by numerous factors, including enzyme, substrate concentration, pH and Add 0.1ml Enzyme Stop Solution and 0.8ml distilled water (or pure lab water) to all the Assay A, B and C tubes. 3. Prepare enzyme reaction tubes : Label three 1.5ml centrifuge. Report the average final pH ± standard deviation: (a) on the label of the buffer stock solution; (b) in your formal report; and (c) to the class as a whole. EXPERIMENTAL: MICHAELIS-MENTEN CHARACTERIZATION OF ADH AT pH 9 Start each day of the enzyme kinetics lab by pouring out for yourself sub-portions of these fou One of the important facets of enzyme kinetics is the phenomenon of enzyme inhibition. Substances can be found which when added to a reaction mixture result in lower velocities; i.e., the reaction is inhibited. Two common mechanisms are competitive inhibition and noncompetitive inhibition
discuss all of the work in the lab report, if one is assigned. To draw your graphs, divide each page of graph paper into 4 sections and use one section per experiment. In all of the following protocols, add the indicated components in the order listed, being especially careful to add the enzyme last to all reaction mixtures Experiment 4 - Kinetics of Lactate Dehydrogenase Lactate dehydrogenase is a tetrameric enzyme found almost ubiquitously in nature. It catalyzes the final step in glycolysis under anaerobic metabolism, the reduction of pyruvate by NADH to produce L-lactate and NAD+ (Figure 1). Figure 1. The lactate dehydrogenase-catalyzed reaction Fundamentals of Enzyme Kinetics. Department of Biochemistry History of Enzymes-Enzymes are biological catalysts.-Each enzyme has a genetically determined and unique primary sequences.. History of enzyme researches-In 1700s, studies of meat digestion by stomach secretions-In 1800s, studies of conversion of starch into sugar by saliva and plant extract-In 1850s, Louis Pasteur concluded that the. Each lab partner's report must have a Logger Pro-generated printout of an Enzyme Kinetics Lab protocol. The purpose of this experiment is to determine the rate and rate law. 2NMR study of a reversible hydrolysis reaction 265. KINETICS LABORATORY. Include a copy of the chart print with the lab report One simplest method to study enzyme kinetics is to measure the initial rate of the reaction designated V 0 ( Initial velocity), when [S] is much greater than the concentration of enzyme, [E]. The effect on V 0, when the enzyme concentration becomes constant is shown in Figure 1
Enzymatic Kinetics Lauren Perryman With Racquel Robinson, Kimberly Roberts, Halie Choate Abstract Catalase is an enzyme that breaks down hydrogen peroxide into water and gaseous oxygen. The research outlined in this paper investigated this property of catalase and verified whether or not this enzyme/substrate relationship follows th The enzyme kinetics module is organized in one seminar followed by two laboratory sessions (4 hr each). During the seminar, the principal concepts of basic enzyme kinetics are introduced, including transition state theory, steady state and initial velocity concepts, deduction of Michaelis-Menten equation, and enzyme inhibition measuring enzyme activity is normally to determine the amount of enzyme present under deﬁned conditions, so that activity can be compared between one sample and another, and between one laboratory and another. The conditions chosen are usually at the optimum pH
Mock Enzyme Lab (after Chayoth, R. and A. Cohen. 1996. A simulation game for the study of enzyme kinetics & inhibition. American Biology Teacher 58:175-177) PROCEDURE Part I Enzyme Activity and Substrate Concentration A blindfolded student (the enzyme) picks up as many pennies (substrate) as possible in 30 seconds The Total Units of Enzyme Activity was calculated by multiplying the Units/ml obtained by the dilution factor of 1. Units x DF x ml of stock protein solution = Units ml 0.112 units/ml x 1 x 6ml = 0.67 Units of Enzyme Activity 0.13 units/ml x 1 x 6ml = 0.78 Units of Enzyme Activity 0.12 units/ml x 1 x 6ml = 0.72 Units of Enzyme Activit mechanism of enzyme kinetics. The theory proposes that when an enzyme acts upon a substrate molecule, an enzyme-substrate complex forms and that this complex yields the product(s) in addition to the original unchanged enzyme. If the substrate is present in excess over the enzyme, the enzyme would get used up and form enzyme-substrate complexes The value of y on your report sheet. February 2, 2001. Each lab partner's report must have a logger Pro-generated printout of the lab protocol a. Enzyme Kinetics. The purpose of this experiment is to determine the law on rates and rates. 2NMR Study reversible hydrolysis response 265. KINETICS LAB. Include a copy of the graph printout in the lab. properties of enzymes, essential. This book is about understanding the principles of enzyme kinetics and knowing how to use mathematical models to describe the catalytic function of an enzyme. Coverage of the material is by no means exhaustive. There exist many books on enzyme kinetics that offer thorough, in-depth treatises of the subject.
Change in Enzyme Kinetics with Substrate Concentration, you varied one substrate, H 2 O 2, but kept [E] constant. You will repeat this procedure in this week's lab, but you will add a constant level of inhibitor [I] to one reaction set to see how the velocity of the reaction is impacted. Do this as follows: a The enzyme α Amylase can catalyze the hydrolysis of internal α -1,4-glycosidic bond present in starch with the production of reducing sugars. In the study of substrate concentration on enzyme kinetics, the enzyme is kept constant where as the concentration of Starch is taken in increasing order . 1980 Words 8 Pages. Abstract: This experimentation was to evaluate absorbance and the reaction rate of an enzyme, '-amylase in starch-iodine solution. We will be testing the relationship between enzymatic.
6 Biochemistry Enzyme kinetics At a time when the amount of substrate is greater than the amount of enzyme, then, the rate is the initial velocity of V i. If we plot V i as a function of [S], following observations will be made: At low [S], the initial velocity,V i, rises linearly with increasing [S]. When [S] increases, V i settle down (rectangular hyperbolais formed) Enzyme Kinetic report - effect of substrate concentration on Exam 2018, questions Genetic Engineering - Mandatory Lab Report Microarray and Western Blot Lab Report (Autosaved) Protein Structure Revision Notes Blood Proteins Revision Note Enzyme Kinetics Lab Report - Science laboratory reports are designed to interact the findings of research study, in such a way that is clear to readers. You need to not forget to include any extra information, which may be helpful for readers. Writing a great science lab sample is necessary if you want to make your research and your report interesting and useful to readers Enzyme activity is frequently investigated in the medicinal, biochemistry, and food science research fields to elucidate the rate of which reaction occurs and the affinity of the enzyme-substrate interactions. The rates of these reactions can be accurately measured using a UV-Visible spectrophotometer. When an enzyme (E) binds with a substrate. max 2 in a lab report or quiz will cost lots of points! Clicker Question #3 For a particular enzyme: K m = 10 M k cat = 15s 1 Outline of Enzyme-kinetics Experiment This week: 1.Measure velocity as a function of enzyme concentration. 2.Determine enzyme concentration by titration with an inhibitor
cxc lab on action of an enzyme.pdf FREE PDF DOWNLOAD NOW!!! Source #2: cxc lab on action of an enzyme.pdf Study Of The Kinetics Of A Reaction Lab 12 | Tricia Joy Ap Biology Enzyme Lab Report 2 - Free PPT download kinetics of a reaction lab report answers below. An Introduction to Chemical Kinetics-Claire Vallance 2017-09-28 The book is a short primer on chemical reaction rates based on a six-lecture first-year undergraduate course taught by the author at the University of Oxford. The book explores the variou Enzyme kinetics is the study of the rates of enzyme-catalysed chemical reactions.In enzyme kinetics, the reaction rate is measured and the effects of varying the conditions of the reaction are investigated. Studying an enzyme's kinetics in this way can reveal the catalytic mechanism of this enzyme, its role in metabolism, how its activity is controlled, and how a drug or a modifier (inhibitor.
Enzyme Kinetics (activity) PDF Button. The Enzyme. Amylase is an enzyme that breaks down amylose (starch) into glucose molecules. What test can be used to indicate the presence of Starch? What test can be used to indicate the presence of glucose Biochemistry Lab Report. BCH 367 Elementary Biochemistry Lab Enzyme Kinetic Analysis of Alkaline Phosphatase. School of Molecular Sciences, Arizona State University 1. Experiment 4 Enzyme Kinetic Analysis of Alkaline Phosphatase. Introduction. Phosphatases are the common enzymes in numerous physiological actions, such as signal transduction
Bio 126 - Week 3 - Enzyme Kinetics Lab Report do this, you will need to include the following items: y a graph of v0 (in nmol/min) as a function of [S] (the final concentration in the reaction mixture) y a double reciprocal (Lineweaver-Burke) plot of 1/ v0 as a function of 1/[S], including the best fit line and the equation for the line LAB : FACTORS INFLUENCING ENZYME ACTIVITY Much can be learned about enzymes by studying the kinetics (changes in rate) of enzyme-catalyzed reactions. For example, it is possible to measure the amount of product formed, or the Each group will test and report data on one of th Michaelis Constant (K m): Enzymes have varying tendencies to bind their substrates (affinities).An enzyme's K m describes the substrate concentration at which half the enzyme's active sites are occupied by substrate. A high K m means a lot of substrate must be present to saturate the enzyme, meaning the enzyme has low affinity for the substrate. On the other hand, a low K m means only a small. Check Pages 1 - 6 of Enzyme Kinetics - Weber State University in the flip PDF version. Enzyme Kinetics - Weber State University was published by on 2016-06-22. Find more similar flip PDFs like Enzyme Kinetics - Weber State University. Download Enzyme Kinetics - Weber State University PDF for free new unit of enzyme activity (katal) in line with the Sj,stkme International, and to give it a name, to be used instead of the earlier, unnamed enzyme unit. The katal, being related to the second as unit of time, fits much better with the rate constants used in chemical kinetics than does the earlier enzyme unit. The 197
Biochemistry Lab Enzyme Assay Background & MDH Protocol Proper Rates: This depends on each enzyme.For MDH, a rate of 0.05 to 0.4 ΔOD/min is good enough. If the reaction is over too fast (see above) then dilute the enzyme.If you are not certain how much to dilute th Make Denatured Enzyme Solution: Put 20 mL of Enzyme Solution into a test tube. Add 200 mL of water to a 400 mL beaker. Place the test tube with Enzyme Solution into the beaker with water, being careful to rest tube on side of beaker. Boil the water in the beaker for 30 minutes. Let solution cool to room temperature. Lab Procedure: Gather materials . Another factor that affects enzymes is pH (Leake and Read 1990). In this lab, we will be studying the effects of temperature, enzyme concentration and pH on the enzyme, hydrogen peroxidase that is found in all aerobic cells and functions to decompose hydrogen peroxide (Petersen and Anderson 2005) Acid phosphatase is a water-soluble enzyme, so this step was able to extract the enzyme from the pellet but other water soluble molecules could have been incorporated. If a different solvent was used, maybe the loss wouldn't be so significant. To protect the integrity of the enzyme, the conditions within the experiment must be highly regulated Lab Report 4 - Enzymes. Enzymes. The Rate of Reaction on Liver, Apples, and Potatoes with Hydrogen Peroxide. AP Biology, Mod 5. Abstract The purpose of this lab was to test enzyme function in various environments. Substrate concentration, temperature, and pH all affect the chemical reaction. In this lab, the enzyme catalase was used to break.
A study into the kinetics of a chemical reaction is usually carried out with one or both of two main goals in mind: 1. Analysis of the sequence of elementary steps giving rise to the overall reaction. i.e. the reaction mechanism. 2. Determination of the absolute rate of the reaction and/or its individual elementary steps An experiment using 1H NMR spectroscopy to observe the kinetics of the acylase 1-catalyzed hydrolysis of N-acetyl-dl-methionine has been developed for the organic laboratory. The l-enantiomer of the reactant is hydrolyzed completely in less than 2 h, and 1H NMR spectroscopic data from a single sample can be worked up to generate Michaelis−Menten and Lineweaver−Burke kinetic plots. The. The key features of the plot are marked by points A, B and C. At high substrate concentrations, the rate represented by point C, the rate of the reaction is essentially equal to V max, and the difference in rate at nearby concentrations of substrate is almost negligible.At this point the reaction rate is dependent solely on the amount of enzyme and is therefore, occurring with zero order kinetics standard curve used in the enzyme kinetics trials. The extinction coefficient of 5.78 μmol-1cm-1 was given by the slope of the line. The kinetics trials presented findings with a range of absorbances from: 0.49 to 0.86 in the uninhibited trial, and 0.039 to 0.36 in the inhibited trial. These values fel Kinetics. The rates of enzyme-catalysed reactions vary with pH and often pass through a maximum as the pH is varied. If the enzyme obeys Michaelis-Menten kinetics the kinetic parameters k 0 and k A often behave similarly. The pH at which the rate or a suitable parameter is a maximum is called the pH optimum and the plot of rate or parameter against pH is called a pH profile
Enzyme Kinetics. Enzymes are protein catalysts that, like all catalysts, speed up the rate of a chemical reaction without being used up in the process. They achieve their effect by temporarily binding to the substrate and, in doing so, lowering the activation energy needed to convert it to a product has more enzymatic activity of the enzyme tyrosinase than the typical baking potato, known as Russet potatoes. Be sure to refer to the Cell Biology Lab Report Guidelines in the appendix of your lab manual. Preparation of Enzyme Extracts Each table will process one russet as well as one other type of potato and share their fina Enzyme kinetics is the study of the chemical reactions that are catalyzed by enzymes. In enzyme kinetics, the reaction rate is measured and the effects of varying the conditions of the reaction are investigated. Studying an enzyme's kinetics in this way can reveal the catalytic mechanism of this enzyme, its role in metabolism, how its. Catalase Enzyme Lab Per_____ In this lab we will be working with catalase, an enzyme that is universally found in all organisms that breathe oxygen. Catalase is made of thousands of amino acid monomers. One function of catalase is to prevent the accumulation of toxic levels of hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2) inside cells
Enzymes are complex proteins that act in a living organism's closely controlled internal environment, where the temperature and pH remain within a rather narrow range. Extreme changes in the temperature or pH at which the enzyme is designed to act will cause a decrease or inhibition of enzyme activity. Changes i Enzymes Lab Report. Enzymes Lab Report Inroduction In this lab we explore an enzymes activity and how it can be affected by changes to its environment. An enzyme is a protein and is a catalyst to chemical reactions. It helps accelerate reactions by lowering the activation energy, which is needed for reactions in cells to progress at a higher rate Enzyme Kinetics: Basic Enzyme Reactions Enzymes are catalysts and increase the speed of a chemical reaction without themselves undergoing any permanent chemical change. They are neither used up in the reaction nor do they appear as reaction products Enzyme Commission Report was published in 1961, and provided a systematic approach to the naming of enzymes. The sixth edition, published in 1992, contained details of nearly 3200 different enzymes, and supplements published annually have now extended this number to over 5 000 To do so, it is. View Lab Report - Enzyme Lab Report from BIO 114 at JMU. Aakash Parikh Lab report 2 Mr. Veres 11/23/2011 Factors influencing Enzyme activity. This begins the analysis section of the lab report. This enzyme facilitates. Enzymes are biological catalysts capable of speeding up chemical reactions by lowering activation. Catalase.
The Avocado Lab: An Inquiry-Driven Exploration of an Enzymatic Browning Reaction Shelby T. Peres 1, Kelsey A. Oonk1,2, and Kasandra J. Riley1* 1Department of Chemistry, Rollins College 2Department of Cell Biology, Duke University Medical Center Abstract Typical biochemistry labs exploring basic enzyme activity rely on costly, time-consuming protein purification and rarel The Amoeba Sisters explain enzymes and how they interact with their substrates. Vocabulary covered includes active site, induced fit, coenzyme, and cofactor... Enzyme kinetics is the study of the rates of chemical reactions that are catalysed by enzymes. The study of an enzyme's kinetics provides insights into the catalytic mechanism of this enzyme, its role in metabolism, how its activity is controlled in the cell and how drugs and poisons can inhibit its activity.. Enzymes are molecules that manipulate other molecules — the enzymes' substrates Enzyme kinetics is an essential process of life, but it is a concept that challenges introductory biology students. Most enzyme kinetics laboratory activities either use hazardous chemicals to visualize the enzyme product or do not afford quantitative analysis at all. We have designed an inquiry-based activity that provides insight into enzyme function and that is budget friendly, safe, and. Enzyme Catalysis Lab Report-1 - University of Pennsylvania Lap report samples Chapter 8-9 BIO 108 Bio 130 Preview text Logan 1 Destinee Logan Grand Canyon University 4 March 2018 Enzyme Lab Report Introduction All cells and organisms rely on enzymes to catalyze chemical reactions. Enzyme Lab Report - BIO-181L General Biology I - Lab - GCU.
Experiment 3 - Enzyme kinetics; velocity as a function of enzyme concentration, titration of trypsin with BPTI. Lab report for Experiment 2 due. 1 March: Experiment 3 (cont.) - Enzyme kinetics; burst substrate titration, velocity as a function of substrate concentration, determination of K m, V max and k cat. 8 March: No Lab Sessions This Week! 1 . Adapted from: BioRad -Biofuel Enzyme Kit. Biofuel Enzyme LABName_____. Background. Enzymes are proteins that speed up the rate of chemical reactions. Since they do not chemically react with the substrate, they can work again an Read this Science Lab Report and over 89,000 other research documents. Enzyme Lab Report. AP Biology Lab: Catalase (Enzymes) Abstract In this laboratory exercise, studies of enzyme catalase, which accelerates the breakdown of..
Products for Life Science Research & Clinical Diagnostics. handing in the lab. report late. Be sure to answer all questions given. Not all reports are equally easy, marks allocated to a report may vary from 10 to 15 to 20, depending on the length and difficulty of the calculations and questions. PROBLEMS. Some labs. have lots of questions to answer. In fact, some look like a lab. with a problem set. It was the merit of Leonor Michaelis and Maud Menten (Michaelis and Menten, 1913) to realize that the enzyme activity depends decisively on defined conditions with respect to temperature, pH, nature and strength of ions and enzyme assays can reliably only be compared, if such conditions are strictly regarded.Considering these conditions, it may appear a simple task to define general rules. AP Biology Enzyme Lab Report - Free download as Word Doc (.doc), PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or read online for free
May be typed in ethanol enzyme kinetics of a lab exercise any lab report. It is the effect on a lab answers pdf enzyme kinetics pre lab report. View notes for you find ap chemistry laboratory i experiment and, version enzyme microeconomics essay lab report. They not important to enzyme kinetics lab report introduction: Enzyme Kinetics of Turnip Peroxidase. Hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2) is a strong oxidizing agent that can damage cells and is formed as a by-product of oxygen consumption. Fortunately, aerobic cells contain peroxidases that break down peroxide into water and oxygen. This enzyme reduces hydrogen peroxide into H 2 O by oxidizing an organic compound. Enzymes react with hydrochloric acid disappearing cross lab report answers pdf ap chemistry. Kinetics, the study of the rates of chemical reactions, has a profound impact on our daily lives. Analysis of the above graphs will provide the data needed for the completion of the lab report (PDF - 1.8MB) 5: Catalase Kinetics Lab: In this experiment, the student will investigate the enzyme activity of catalase by studying the decomposition of H 2 O 2 to form water and oxygen. Using an oxygen based pressure sensor the student measures the amount of oxygen produced and then calculates the rate of the enzyme catalyzed reaction under. Enzyme Lab KC 4 Science u00a9 2008 Kent ISD page 1 Enzyme Lab Introduction: Enzymes are proteins which are made by the cell and which act as catalysts. Catalysts speed up [Filename: Enzyme Lab Resource.pdf] - Read File Online - Report Abus
Located in a lab enzyme kinetics lab report october 12th, temperature on the kinetics of objects,. Welcome to understand the objective of the endpoint indicator. Solution of the laboratory students learn about research kinetics and make chemical reactions s o example. 2-4 10: interactive lessons using sample on a substance Read PDF Toothpickase Enzyme Lab Answers Toothpickase Enzyme Lab Answers Recognizing the showing off ways to acquire this books toothpickase enzyme lab answers is additionally useful. You have remained in right site to start getting this info. get the toothpickase enzyme lab answers partner that we pay for here and check out the link
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IB Biology Lab Report Example: Enzyme - AcademyDen Now, more than 3,000 C.D.C. employees are aiding the coronavirus response, analyzing data, performing lab work and deploying to cities where local health departments need help Enzyme and Microbial Technology is an international, peer-reviewed journal publishing original research and reviews, of biotechnological significance and novelty, on basic and applied aspects of the science and technology of processes involving the use of enzymes, micro-organisms, animal cells and plant cells. We especially encourage submissions on:. Biological Macromolecules: UV-visible Spectrophotometry Franz-Xaver Schmid,University of Bayreuth, Germany. context for an introduction to the fundamentals of enzyme catalysis, kinetics, bioenergetics, and metabolic regulation. The virtual lab promotes mastery of the lecture content while exploring lab techniques used in biochemical research. Upon completion, students will have a solid background in the science that provides the foundation of th